Use of Force

Steven Morrison


31 years of occupational competence within the private security industry

Expert evidence is used to assist the court when the case before it involves matters on which it does not have the requisite technical or specialist knowledge.



Why use our services


Steven Morrison is a subject matter expert (SME) to awarding organisations otherwise commonly referred to as awarding bodies and writes and designs qualifications relating to the private security industry and was one of the SME consultant's on the current specifications relating to security guarding, door supervision and cctv in 2014, with the introduction of the SIA licence linked qualifications that were introduced in January 2015.

Legal Sector competence

Steven Morrison also has 31 years of operational experience as a front-line door supervisor working in casino's, nightclubs, bars and is also a SIA licensed close protection operative in which he works for various artists in the music and entertainment, and business sector.


Steven started his role as a door supervisor in August of 1987 working at Jack Diamond's bar under central station and progressing his career and understanding 


Steven's curriculum vitae can be viewed online by any solicitor or procurator fiscal. For security reasons this page is locked by password and a request can be made from any law firms email account or a procurator fiscal depute's registered email account.  

Design, prepare and write...

He has also previously contributed and acknowledged as a writer on a number of security training handbooks for publishing and awarding bodies and continues to do so with the main vision of raising professional standards of training within the private security industry.

Legal competence of an expert witness

We are aware of a number of purported expert witness's who have no actual sector competence which to speak of and this is legally problematic if such a person was to give evidence against a security operative charged with a relevant offence and this must be prohibited in concurrence with the right to a fair trial. It goes against the very fabric of the Scottish legal judiciary to allow or permit such testimony from a person who lacks expert knowledge and sector competence.


The legal standard dictating that of a reasonable person is to demonstrate that if a “security operative uses force then it is justified so long as the security operative is acting like any other reasonable security operative given the same set of circumstances.”

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understanding reasonable force For security operatives

In late 2017 Steven Morrison started to design, prepare and write a specialist course for the private security industry on his specialist subject 'understanding use of force' which is delivered by his own specialist training company Proactive Training (Scotland).

“We advise solicitors to only ever use a 'competent' person to provide analysis of any incidents involving private security operatives as one case we worked on where the procurator fiscal depute had instructed an individual who was a private training provider and the Sheriff dismissed the individual as they had clearly never held any position within the private security industry and they were dismissed from giving any evidence”

Steven Morrison

Scotland’s Premier Expert Witness Service

As an expert witness I am not only qualified to analyse evidence, but also to give a professional opinion on what that evidence means. I am able to explain any findings in a clear and concise manner, as well as the ability to clearly, methodically and convincingly dispute any incorrect information the opposing side may put forward.


All legal reports are written in a professional legal document with all evidence clearly cited and all opinions are carefully noted as well as rebuttal evidence.

The three main areas we can assist solicitors or procurator fiscal deputes with are:

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    Analysis of use of force incidents and written reports and analysis of cctv evidence.
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    A full in-depth and comprehensively written legal report.
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    Strong expert witness testimony under cross-examination under criminal or civil procedure.

Expert Witness / Training / Consultancy


We have the skills, knowledge and expertise through occupational competence which has been built up over 31 years working within the private security industry. In relation to Use of Force Encounters it requires proper analysis by a competent person.  Violent incidents can be very dynamic, fluid and extremely problematic for those who are not occupationally competent to understand the complexities and use of force science, even although they may be a private training provider and where they lack the occupational expertise of having occupational competence working directly within a front-line role and may only provide the courts with theoretical subjective knowledge as opposed to practical objective knowledge and use of force scientific gained from years of actual experience.


It is a direct interference to an individuals right to a far trial to instruct or allow evidence by a non-competent person to assess use of force incidents involving security operatives when that person has 'no occupational competence' to speak of themselves.


The "reasonableness" of a particular use of force incident must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable security operative on the scene, and its calculus must embody an allowance for the fact that security operatives such as door supervisors and security guards are often forced to make split-second decisions about the amount of force necessary in a particular situation.

I am able to provide expert evidence based on the latest, unbiased scientific evidence on use of force incidents involving security operatives. Our expertise is a valuable resource for individuals, organisations, law firms.  


We assist legal professionals in applying ground-breaking concepts revealed in human performance research when engaging in use of force encounters, We specialise in investigating, reconstructing, recalling or otherwise analysing a UOF incident.  We go far beyond to provide evidence-based science to understand human performance under stressors, derived from 31 years of occupational research and science.

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How to instruct an expert witness

The practice of  the different ways in which experts may be used, how to instruct an expert, an expert's duties and what an expert may be expected to do then please read . It covers the requirements for the form, content and timing of an expert's report and evidence at trial:

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